# How do electric and magnetic fields interact with each other?

A moving electric charge generates a magnetic field. A magnetic field induces the movement of electric charge, producing an electric current. In an electromagnetic wave, the electric field and the magnetic field are perpendicular to each other. Electromagnetic fields consist of photons, so photons are the particles that represent (mediate) the interactions between charged particles.

Because photons interact only with charged particles, but are not charged, they do not interact with each other. For this reason, the beams of light from two flashlights pass through each other without being scattered, unlike two jets of water. In addition, since photons are field particles (bosons), unlike matter particles (fermions), they can be in the same place at the same time (Pauli's exclusion principle does not apply to them). This also helps them not to see each other at all, practically flying as if they were passing through each other like ghosts.

The magnetic force affects only charges that are already in motion. It is transmitted by the magnetic field. Both magnetic fields and magnetic forces are more complicated than electric fields and electric forces. The magnetic field does not point along the direction of the source of the field, but rather points in a perpendicular direction.

In addition, the magnetic force acts in a direction that is perpendicular to the direction of the field. By comparison, both the electric force and the electric field point directly toward or in the opposite direction of the charge. Interactions between electric currents and magnetic fields create forces. The magnetic force on a current in a magnetic field %3D of current x displacement through the magnetic field.

This force can be predicted using the right-hand rule. When two currents are directed through magnetic fields in the same direction, they attract each other. When they head in opposite directions, they repel each other. The disturbance of the Earth's confined magnetic field produces spectacular exhibits, the so-called Northern Lights, in which trapped charged particles are released and hit the Earth through the atmosphere.

This charge density imbalance will now have an associated electric field E that will repel the test charge (+). The electric field is actually the force per unit of charge experienced by an immobile point charge at a given place within the field, while the magnetic field is detected by the force it exerts on other magnetic particles and on moving electrical charges. However, setting the test charge (+) in motion with a speed equal to the electrons (-) will make the charge density (+) of the cable appear to be contracted relative to the charge density (-). The explanation of how the magnetic field B and the electric field E are actually the same depending on the frame of reference comes directly from Special Relativity.

In most materials, little or no field is observed outside of matter due to the random orientation of the various constituent atoms. Of course, this would seem to us as if two beams of light were scattered one on top of the other, but in the end this would not be without the help of virtual electrons and positrons, such as charged particles. The arrows in Figure 2 represent the size and direction of the magnetic field for a current moving in the indicated direction. The practical application of magnetism in technology is largely reinforced by the use of iron and other ferromagnetic materials with electrical currents in devices such as motors.

The force has a direction that is perpendicular to both the direction of motion of the charge and the direction of the magnetic field. The present discussion will address simple situations in which the magnetic field is produced by a charge current in a cable.